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Gluten Intolerance

Gluten free vegan cheese

Gluten

is a protein that is found in wheat, barley, and rye. Wheat is a grain most commonly found in breads, pastas, and cereal. Wheat often appears in foods like soups and salad dressings as well. Barley is commonly found in beer and in foods containing malt. Rye is most often found in rye bread, rye beer, and some cereals. Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten. Gluten-related disorders include celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and wheat allergy [1-2]. The term "gluten intolerance" should not be used, because it is non-specific and carries inherent contradictions and weaknesses.

Furthermore, it is not recommended to use the term "gluten sensitivity", and "non-coeliac gluten sensitivity" is to be used instead [1]. Currently, there is a growing incidence of a wide spectrum of gluten-related disorders all around the world including CD and NCGS. It may be explained by the progressive westernization of diet, the expansion of Mediterranean diet (which includes a lot of foods that incorporate gluten), the growing replacement of rice by wheat in many countries [4], the development in recent years of new types of wheat with a higher amount of cytotoxic gluten peptides, and the higher content of gluten in bread and bakery products, due to the reduction of dough fermentation time [5].

[1] Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, et al., The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms, 2013 Jan, Gut 62 (1): 43–52.

[2] Sapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, et al., Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification, 2012, . BMC Medicine (Review) 10: 13.

[3] Gluten def. 3. Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009

[4] Tovoli F, Masi C, Guidetti E, et al., Clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders, 2015 Mar, World J Clin Cases 3 (3): 275–84.

[5] Volta U, Caio G, Tovoli F, et al., Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: questions still to be answered despite increasing awareness, 2013 Sep., Cellular & Molecular Immunology (Review) 10 (5): 383–92.

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